|ΣΥΜΦΩΝΑ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΔΝΤ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΠΟΡΤΟΓΑΛΙΑ: Η ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΗ ΕΝΙΣΧΥΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΟΙΚΟΓΕΝΕΙΩΝ ΓΙΑ ΑΥΞΗΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΓΕΝΝΗΣΕΩΝ ΔΕΝ ΕΧΕΙ ΣΟΒΑΡΑ ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΑ|
|Box 2. Do Family Cash Benefits Increase Fertility?|
Though family cash benefits are a feature of many systems, empirical studies on the impact of policies that seek to increase fertility have found little, if any, impact. The evidence on “pronatalist” interventions is that financial measures that attempt to encourage parents to have more children—ranging from birth bonuses and tax breaks for children to more generous allowances to higher-parity births—have individually little or no impact.1 They may induce parents that were in any case going to have a child to have a child earlier. Examining two countries with relatively high fertility rates, Sweden and France, confirms that cash benefits, even rather generous ones, play a limited role. Sweden has shaped interventions to meet the needs of individual and dual breadwinner families, leading some to conclude that the ‘persistent focus on gender equality is a better strategy’ so that ‘women don’t see childbearing as reducing their freedom.’2 In contrast, France has historically stressed male breadwinner models. Even so,
since the 1990s an extensive policy of promoting crèche facilities (often means-tested) existed alongside more traditional benefits as part of a constellation of 28 separate interventions.3 Though empirical evidence finds some impact of these policies, it is small and of temporary duration. Therefore, if Portugal wants to engage in policies to raise fertility, it would be well advised to look in directions other than cash benefits to families.
1/ A. Gauthier and D. Philipov, 2008, “Can Policies Enhance Fertility in Europe?” Vienna Yearbook of Population
Research 2008, pp. 1–16.
2/See, for example, G. Andersson, 2008, “A Review of Policies and Practices Related to the ‘highest-low’ Fertility
of Sweden.” Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2008, pp. 89–102.
3/ A. Pailhé, C. Rossier, and L. Toulemon., 2008, “French Family Policy: Lo
|ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΑ ΑΠΟ ΜΙΑ ΑΝΑΦΟΡΑ ΤΟΥ ΔΝΤ ΓΙΑ ΠΟΡΤΟΓΑΛΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΓΚΡΙΣΕΙΣ|
|ΜΕ ΓΑΛΛΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΣΟΥΗΔΙΑ|
|The Portugal Large families Association suggest the IMF to redo the
Η Πορτογαλική Ομοσπονδία Μεγάλων Οικογενειών αντιστρέφει το ερώτημα και ζητά από το ΔΝΤ να αλλάξει το ερώτημά του ως εξής:
Does the penalization to families with children promote the reduction of births?
Η Τιμωρία των οικογενειών με παιδιά προάγει την μείωση των γεννήσεων;
|Σας θυμίζει κάτι όμοιο και εδώ;|